Biologic and geologic characteristics of cold seeps in Monterey Bay, California

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Barry, J. P., Greene, H. G., Orange, D. L., Baxter, C. H., Robison, B. H., Kochevar, R. E., … McHugh, C. M. (1996). Biologic and geologic characteristics of cold seeps in Monterey Bay, California. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 43(11), 1739-1762. doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(96)00075-1
TitleBiologic and geologic characteristics of cold seeps in Monterey Bay, California
AuthorsJ. Barry, H. Greene, D. Orange, C. Baxter, B. Robison, R. Kochevar, J. Nybakken, D. Reed, C. McHugh
AbstractCold seep communities discovered at three previously unknown sites between 600 and 1000 m in Monterey Bay, California, are dominated by chemoautotrophic bacteria (Beggiatoa sp.) and vesicomyid clams (5 sp.). Other seep-associated fauna included galatheid crabs (Munidopsis sp.), vestimentiferan worms (Lamellibrachia barhami?), solemyid clams (Solemya sp.), columbellid snails (Mitrella permodesta, Amphissa sp.), and pyropeltid limpets (Pyropelta sp.). More than 50 species of regional (i.e. non-seep) benthic fauna were also observed at seeps. Ratios of stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) in clam tissues near -36‰ indicate sulfur-oxidizing chemosynthetic production, rather than non-seep food sources, as their principal trophic pathway. The 'Mt Crushmore' cold seep site is located in a vertically faulted and fractured region of the Pliocene Purisima Formation along the walls of Monterey Canyon (~635 m), where seepage appears to derive from sulfide-rich fluids within the Purisima Formation. The 'Clam Field' cold seep site, also in Monterey Canyon (~900 m) is located near outcrops in the hydrocarbon-bearing Monterey Formation. Chemosynthetic communities were also found at an accretionary-like prism on the continental slope near 1000 m depth (Clam Flat site). Fluid flow at the 'Clam Flat' site is thought to represent dewatering of accretionary sediments by tectonic compression, or hydrocarbon formation at depth, or both. Sulfide levels in pore waters were low at Mt Crushmore (ca 0.2 mM), and high at the two deeper sites (ca 7.011.0 mM). Methane was not detected at the Mt Crushmore site, but ranged from 0.06 to 2.0 mM at the other sites.
JournalDeep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers
Start page1739
End page1762
Subjectschemoautotrophic bacteria, chemosynthesis, chemosynthetic community, cold seep community, cold seeps, cold-seep community, community structure, compression, deep-sea benthos, faulting, tectonics, USA, California, Monterey Bay, Amphissa, Beggiatoa, Bivalvia, Decapoda, Gastropoda, Lamellibrachia barhami, Mitrella permodesta, Munidopsis, Pyropelta, Solemya, Vesicomyidae, Vestimentifera
NoteCited By (since 1996):108, Invertebrates, CODEN: DRORE