Genetic diversity in native and introduced populations of the amethyst gem clam Gemma gemma (Totten, 1834) from the U.S. east and west coasts

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Zhang, H., Geller, J. B., & Vrijenhoek, R. C. (2014). Genetic diversity in native and introduced populations of the amethyst gem clam Gemma gemma (Totten, 1834) from the U.S. east and west coasts. Biological Invasions.
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TitleGenetic diversity in native and introduced populations of the amethyst gem clam Gemma gemma (Totten, 1834) from the U.S. east and west coasts
AuthorsH. Zhang, J. Geller, R. Vrijenhoek
AbstractReduced genetic diversity due to founder effects often is expected for invasive populations. The present study examined two nuclear gene regions and one mitochondrial gene to evaluate the origins and genetic diversity of Gemma gemma, a 'stow-away' that was introduced to California more than 100 years ago with the importation of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, from the United States' Atlantic coast. A previous investigation involving mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-c-oxidase subunit I sequences reported no significant difference in haplotype diversity between the native and introduced populations; however, estimates of allelic (or haplotypic) variability are insensitive to losses of rare alleles that may accompany founder events and population bottlenecks. Estimates of allele richness and the distribution of rare alleles provide more sensitive indicators of such events. The present investigation of introduced and potential source populations identified lower allele richness and number of singleton alleles in California samples. Atlantic coast Gemma exhibit a sharp phylogeographic transition between northeastern (New York through New England) and mid-Atlantic (southern New Jersey through Virginia) subpopulations, which appear latitudinally inverted for the California Gemma populations. These genetic results, and information from the transportation history of the Eastern oyster, help to clarify processes involved in the introduction of this invasive species. © 2014 The Author(s).
JournalBiological Invasions
Date2014
SubjectsGemma gemma, Gene flow, Genetic diversity, Invasive species, Population structure
NoteInvertebrates

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