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- Antibodies to phocine herpesvirus-1 are common in North American harbor seals (Phoca Vitulina),
- Phocine herpesvirus-1 (PhHV-1) has been associated with morbidity and high mortality in neonatal harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) along the Pacific coast of California (USA) and in northern Europe. Seals dying with PhHV-1 associated disease in California primarily have histopathologic evidence of adrenal necrosis or adrenalitis with herpesviral inclusion bodies. Little is known about prevalence of exposure to PhHV-1, modes of disease transmission, and viral pathogenesis in free-ranging harbor seal populations. To evaluate the prevalence in North America, 866 serum samples collected between 1994 and 2002 from harbor seals captured or stranded on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for evidence of PhHV-1 exposure. Samples from three harbor seal age classes (pre-weaned, weaned, and subadults/adults) were obtained from each of four regions to compare exposure among sex, age class, and region. We found increasing prevalence with age as 37.5% of pre-weaned pups, 87.6% of weaned pups, and 99.0% of subadults and adults were seropositive. When accounting for age, no associations between seropositivity and sex or location of harbor seals were detected. These data indicate that PhHV-1 is endemic in the harbor seal populations of North America. © Wildlife Disease Association 2003., Cited By (since 1996):7, Marine Mammals, Birds & Turtles, ,
- Goldstein, Gulland, Aldridge, Harvey, Rowles, Lambourn, Jeffries, Measures, Yochem, Stewart, Small, King, Stott, Mazet
- Recovery rates of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) carcasses estimated from stranding and survival rate data
- Recovery of cetacean carcasses provides data on levels of human-caused mortality, but represents only a minimum count of impacts. Counts of stranded carcasses are negatively biased by factors that includes at-sea scavenging, sinking, drift away from land, stranding in locations where detection is unlikely, and natural removal from beaches due to wave and tidal action prior to detection. We estimate the fraction of carcasses recovered for a population of coastal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), using abundance and survival rate data to estimate annual deaths in the population. Observed stranding numbers are compared to expected deaths to estimate the fraction of carcasses recovered. For the California coastal population of bottlenose dolphins, we estimate the fraction of carcasses recovered to be 0.25 (95% CI = 0.20-0.33). During a 12 yr period, 327 animals (95% CI = 253-413) were expected to have died and been available for recovery, but only 83 carcasses attributed to this population were documented. Given the coastal habits of California coastal bottlenose dolphins, it is likely that carcass recovery rates of this population greatly exceeded recovery rates of more pelagic dolphin species in the region.
- Caretta, Danil, Chivers, Weller, Janiger, Berman-Kowalewski, Hernandez, Harvey, Dunkin, Casper, Stoudt, Flannery, Wilkinson, Huggins, Lambourn