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- A shipboard comparison of analytic methods for ballast water compliance monitoring
- Abstract Promising approaches for indicative analysis of ballast water samples have been developed that require study in the field to examine their utility for determining compliance with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments. To address this gap, a voyage was undertaken on board the RV Meteor, sailing the North Atlantic Ocean from Mindelo (Cape Verde) to Hamburg (Germany) during June 4–15, 2015. Trials were conducted on local sea water taken up by the ship's ballast system at multiple locations along the trip, including open ocean, North Sea, and coastal water, to evaluate a number of analytic methods that measure the numeric concentration or relative biomass of viable organisms according to two size categories (≥ 50 μm in minimum dimension: 7 techniques, ≥ 10 μm and < 50 μm: 9 techniques). Water samples were analyzed in parallel to determine whether results were similar between methods and whether rapid, indicative methods offer comparable results to standard, time- and labor-intensive detailed methods (e.g. microscopy) and high-end scientific approaches (e.g. flow cytometry). Several promising indicative methods were identified that showed high correlation with microscopy, but allow much quicker processing and require less expert knowledge. This study is the first to concurrently use a large number of analytic tools to examine a variety of ballast water samples on board an operational ship in the field. Results are useful to identify the merits of each method and can serve as a basis for further improvement and development of tools and methodologies for ballast water compliance monitoring.
- Bradie, Broeg, Gianoli, He, Heitmüller, Curto, Nakata, Rolke, Schillak, Stehouwer, Vanden Byllaardt, Veldhuis, Welschmeyer, Younan, Zaake, Bailey
- Detection of UV-treatment effects on plankton by rapid analytic tools for ballast water compliance monitoring immediately following treatment
- Abstract Non-indigenous species seriously threaten native biodiversity. To reduce establishments, the International Maritime Organization established the Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments which limits organism concentrations at discharge under regulation D-2. Most ships will comply by using on-board treatment systems to disinfect their ballast water. Port state control officers will need simple, rapid methods to detect compliance. Appropriate monitoring methods may be dependent on treatment type, since different treatments will affect organisms by a variety of mechanisms. Many indicative tools have been developed, but must be examined to ensure the measured variable is an appropriate signal for the response of the organisms to the applied treatment. We assessed the abilities of multiple analytic tools to rapidly detect the effects of a ballast water treatment system based on UV disinfection. All devices detected a large decrease in the concentrations of vital organisms ≥ 50 μm and < 10 μm organisms (mean 82.7–99.7% decrease across devices), but results were more variable for the ≥ 10 to < 50 μm size class (mean 9.0–99.9% decrease across devices). Results confirm the necessity to choose tools capable of detecting the damage inflicted on living organisms, as examined herein for UV-C treatment systems.
- Bradie, Gianoli, He, Curto, Stehouwer, Veldhuis, Welschmeyer, Younan, Zaake, Bailey