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- Effects of shade from multiple kelp canopies on an understory algal assemblage,
- We examined the effects of shade from multiple kelp canopy layers (surface Macrocystis pyrifera canopy, understory Pterygophora californica canopy), both individually and in combination, on an understory algal assemblage in a central Californian kelp forest. The removal of both kelp canopies resulted in a dense recruitment of the understory brown alga Desmarestia ligulata that formed a third canopy layer, which significantly decreased bottom light and the abundance of understory red algae. We subsequently created an additional canopy treatment by removing this third canopy layer. In general, the understory red algae fluctuated seasonally with winter swell intensity, changes in kelp canopy cover, and grazing; and although species richness increased significantly with increased bottom light, red algal bottom cover did not respond significantly to the canopy clearings until 2 yr after the canopies were initially cleared. Red algal cover within the Pterygophora canopy treatment was similar to that in the control treatment. In the absence of Pterygophora, the Macrocystis canopy treatment and 'no canopy' treatment were found to have greater red algal cover and species richness. Individual understory species were rare, which resulted in small effects sizes and thus low statistical power. However, when grouped post hoc, according to how they responded to the canopy clearings (i.e. response groups), we were able to detect canopy treatment effects as much as 1 yr earlier. This method identified that some understory red algae adapted to areas of canopy removal (light-adapted), and others adapted to a variety of light regimes (shade-tolerant). We were able to classify the light-adapted algae into 2 subgroups: the high-light species and the intermediate-light species. Although this method of grouping was done post hoc, our results indicate that it may provide the clearest assessment of how understory algae respond to shading from kelp canopies., Cited By (since 1996):40, Seaweeds, CODEN: MESED, ,
- Clark, Edwards, Foster
- Shift from coral to macroalgae dominance on a volcanically acidified reef
- Rising anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere is accompanied by an increase in oceanic CO2 and a concomitant decline in seawater pH (ref. 1). This phenomenon, known as ocean acidification (OA), has been experimentally shown to impact the biology and ecology of numerous animals and plants2, most notably those that precipitate calcium carbonate skeletons, such as reef-building corals3. Volcanically acidified water at Maug, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) is equivalent to near-future predictions for what coral reef ecosystems will experience worldwide due to OA. We provide the first chemical and ecological assessment of this unique site and show that acidification-related stress significantly influences the abundance and diversity of coral reef taxa, leading to the often-predicted shift from a coral to an algae-dominated state4,5. This study provides field evidence that acidification can lead to macroalgae dominance on reefs., Early online view available.
- Enochs, Manzello, Donham, Kolodziej, Okano, Johnston, Young, Iguel, Edwards, Fox, Valentino, Johnson, Benavente, Clark, Carlton, Burton, Eynaud, Price