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- A rosette system for the collection of trace metal clean seawater,
- We designed a large-volume rosette sampler for collecting seawater with minimal trace metal contamination. The system uses eight modified 30-liter Go-Flo bottles secured to a Nylon II-coated stainless steel frame. The instrument is deployed with a dedicated winch with polyurethane-coated, three-conductor Kevlar hydroline. A prototype was used as part of the U.S. JGOFS Equatorial Pacific sampling program during spring and fall 1992. A redesigned model was used during the 1993 IronEx experiments and is currently being deployed in the Arabian Sea. The results of trace metal analyses collected on these cruises indicate that samples recovered are comparable to current single Go-Flo casts., Cited By (since 1996):28, CODEN: LIOCA, , , Oceanography, Downloaded from: www.aslo.org/lo/toc/vol_41/issue_6/1367.pdf (23 June 2014).
- Hunter, Gordon, Fitzwater, Coale
- IronEx-I, an in situ iron-enrichment experiment,
- An in situ iron-enrichment experiment near the Galapagos Islands was performed in October 1993. Here we report the theoretical and practical considerations of creating such a patch of iron-enriched surface water, as well as the strategies employed for the detection of the patch and the biological and chemical signals which developed, in an area dominated by advective processes. Physical and chemical models were used to predict the speciation, solubility, and the final concentration of iron in surface waters injected with acidic iron sulfate. A trial injection off the California coast in which 800 L of a 0.5 M FeSO4 were introduced into the ship's wake over a 1.5 km2 area, was used to test these predictions. Iron concentrations were determined continually onboard during the initial experiment as the ship steamed in transects through the enriched patch. The results indicate excellent spatial agreement with model predictions and final concentrations that were consistent with the chemical model. However, the use of a Cartesian coordinate system during rejection resulted in an extremely compressed, heterogeneous patch. Results from this preliminary experiment were then applied towards the development and implementation of the first open ocean iron enrichment experiment (IronEx I) near the Galapagos Islands in October 1993. The development and results of these methodologies are presented. In the IronEx I equatorial experiment, a Lagrangian coordinate system was established using a drogued buoy (equipped with GPS and packet radio) and the iron-enriched area (64 km2 containing 443 kg of Fe) was tagged with the inert chemical tracer sulfurhexafluoride (SF6). This strategy resulted in a fairly rectangular, homogeneous enriched patch initially detectable by both Fe and SF6 determination. Shipboard analysis and airborne observations confirmed good spatial agreement between the Lagrangian drifter and the biological and chemical signatures in the patch. Biological and chemical sampling of the enriched area showed an increase in chlorophyll, primary production, biomass and photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency relative to waters outside the patch, supporting the hypothesis that iron limits phytoplankton growth and biomass in a 'bottom up' manner in this area. The ability to create a coherent patch and track it over time led to this first open-ocean test of the iron hypothesis., Cited By (since 1996):42, CODEN: DSROE, ,
- Coale, Johnson, Fitzwater, Blain, Stanton, Coley