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- Sediment quality in Los Angeles Harbor, USA: A triad assessment,
- Sediment quality in the Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbor area of southern California, USA, was assessed from 1992 to 1997 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board's Bay Protection and Toxic Cleanup Program and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Status and Trends Program. The assessment strategy relied on application of various components of the sediment quality triad, combined with bioaccumulation measures, in a weight-of-evidence approach to sediment quality investigations. Results of bulk-phase chemical measurements, solid-phase amphipod toxicity tests, pore-water toxicity tests with invertebrate embryos, benthic community analyses (presented as a relative benthic index), and bioaccumulation measures indicated that inner harbor areas of this system are polluted by high concentrations of a mixture of sediment-associated contaminants and that this pollution is highly correlated with toxicity in laboratory experiments and degradation of benthic community structure. While 29% of sediment samples from this system were toxic to amphipods (Rhepoxynius abronius or Eohaustorius estuarius), 79% were toxic to abalone embryos (Haliotis rufescens) exposed to 100% pore-water concentrations. Statistical analyses indicated that amphipod survival in laboratory toxicity tests was significantly correlated with the number of crustacean species and the total number of species measured in the benthos at these stations. Triad measures were incorporated into a decision matrix designed to classify stations based on degree of sediment pollution, toxicity, benthic community degradation, and, where applicable, tissue concentrations in laboratory-exposed bivalves and feral fish., Cited By (since 1996):36, Rocks and Cores, CODEN: ETOCD, ,
- Anderson, Hunt, Phillips, Fairey, Roberts, Oakden, Puckett, Stephenson, Tjeerdema, Long, Wilson, Lyons
- An evaluation of methods for calculating mean sediment quality guildline quotients as indicators of contamination and acute toxicity to amphipods by chemical mixtures
- Mean sediment quality guideline quotients (mean SQGQs) were developed to represent the presence of chemical mixtures in sediments and are derived by normalizing a suite of chemicals to their respective numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). Mean SQGQs incorporate the number of SQGs exceeded and the degree to which they are exceeded and are used for comparison with observed biological effects in the laboratory or field. The current research makes it clear, however, that the number and type of SQGs used in the derivation of these mean quotients can influence the ability of mean SQGQ values to correctly predict acute toxicity to marine amphipods in laboratory toxicity tests. To determine the optimal predictive ability of mean SQGQs, a total of 18 different chemical combinations were developed and compared. The ability of each set of mean SQGQs to correctly predict the presence and absence of acute toxicity to amphipods was determined using three independent databases (n = 605, 2753, 226). Calculated mean SQGQ values for all chemical combinations ranged from 0.002 to 100. The mean SQGQ that was most predictive of acute toxicity to amphipods is calculated as SQGQ1 = ((∑ ([cadmium]/4.21)([copper]/270)([lead]/112.18)([silver]/1.77)([zinc]/ 410)([total chlordane]/6)([dieldrin]/8)([total PAHOC]/1,800)([total PCB]/400))/9). Both the incidence and magnitude of acute toxicity to amphipods increased with increasing SQGQ1 values. To provide better comparability between regions and national surveys, SQGQ1 is recommended to serve as the standard method for combination of chemicals and respective SQGs when calculating mean SQGQs.
- Fairey, Long, Roberts, Anderson, Phillips, Hunt, Puckett, Wilson