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- Phylogenetic relationships of yessotoxin-producing dinoflagellates, based on the large subunit and internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA domains
- Yessotoxin (YTX) is a globally distributed marine toxin produced by some isolates of the dinoflagellate species Protoceratium reticulatum, Lingulodinium polyedrum, and Gonyaulax spinifera within the order Gonyaulacales. The process of isolating cells and testing each isolate individually for YTX production during toxic blooms are labor intensive, and this impedes our ability to respond quickly to toxic blooms. In this study, we used molecular sequences from the large subunit and internal transcribed spacer genomic regions in the ribosomal operon of known YTX-producing dinoflagellates to determine if genetic differences exist among geographically distinct populations or between toxic and nontoxic isolates within species. In all analyses, all three YTX-producing species fell within the Gonyaulacales order in agreement with morphological taxonomy. Phylogenetic analyses of available rRNA gene sequences indicate that the capacity for YTX production appears to be confined to the order Gonyaulacales. These findings indicate that Gonyaulacoloid dinoflagellate species are the most likely to produce YTX and thus should be prioritized for YTX screening during events. Dinoflagellate species that fall outside of the Gonyaulacales order are unlikely to produce YTX. Although the rRNA operon offers multiple sequence domains to resolve species level diversification within this dinoflagellate order, these domains are not sufficiently variable to provide robust markers for YTX toxicity. © 2009, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved., Cited By (since 1996):8, CODEN: AEMID, Downloaded from: http://aem.highwire.org/content/75/1/54.full.pdf+html (13 June 2014).
- Howard, Smith, Kudela
- Using the molecular toolbox to compare harmful algal blooms in upwelling systems,
- Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are now generally recognized as occurring over a wide range of habitats from oligotrophic to hypernutrified, and appear to be expanding globally. Unlike many other ecosystems impacted by HABs, upwelling systems worldwide share a common set of physical parameters and are likely to respond similarly, regardless of locale. The Core Research Project on HABs in Upwelling Systems, a component of the scientific programme on the Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB), promotes a comparative approach to identify the similarities and differences in the manifestation of HAB events in these systems. As applied to the goals of this programme, molecular techniques are a powerful suite of tools for HAB species identification, for determining genetic similarity within morphologically indistinguishable species, and ultimately, for assessing spatial and temporal patterns in ecophysiological responses in these upwelling systems. Knowledge of HAB organisms will be enhanced by comparing and contrasting the responses of these organisms in similar upwelling regions. Here, we provide an update on the availability of molecular and genetic tools for comparative HAB programmes in upwelling systems, focusing on four broad applications: cell enumeration and identification, molecular phylogenetics, functional/comparative genomics, and applications of high throughput sequencing methods. We highlight the rapid evolution, the promise, and the potential pitfalls, of the molecular toolbox, focusing on specific examples of how scientists and resource managers currently apply these methods. Specific examples are developed using relevant case studies from the California, Benguela and Iberian systems. We summarise by providing a synthesis of future research directions and goals that would be particularly relevant to advancing the comparative method for HAB genetics with an emphasis on upwelling systems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved., Cited By (since 1996):6, CODEN: POCNA, , , Oceanography
- Kudela, Howard, Jenkins, Miller, Smith