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- Phylogenetic relationships of yessotoxin-producing dinoflagellates, based on the large subunit and internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA domains
- Yessotoxin (YTX) is a globally distributed marine toxin produced by some isolates of the dinoflagellate species Protoceratium reticulatum, Lingulodinium polyedrum, and Gonyaulax spinifera within the order Gonyaulacales. The process of isolating cells and testing each isolate individually for YTX production during toxic blooms are labor intensive, and this impedes our ability to respond quickly to toxic blooms. In this study, we used molecular sequences from the large subunit and internal transcribed spacer genomic regions in the ribosomal operon of known YTX-producing dinoflagellates to determine if genetic differences exist among geographically distinct populations or between toxic and nontoxic isolates within species. In all analyses, all three YTX-producing species fell within the Gonyaulacales order in agreement with morphological taxonomy. Phylogenetic analyses of available rRNA gene sequences indicate that the capacity for YTX production appears to be confined to the order Gonyaulacales. These findings indicate that Gonyaulacoloid dinoflagellate species are the most likely to produce YTX and thus should be prioritized for YTX screening during events. Dinoflagellate species that fall outside of the Gonyaulacales order are unlikely to produce YTX. Although the rRNA operon offers multiple sequence domains to resolve species level diversification within this dinoflagellate order, these domains are not sufficiently variable to provide robust markers for YTX toxicity. © 2009, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved., Cited By (since 1996):8, CODEN: AEMID, Downloaded from: http://aem.highwire.org/content/75/1/54.full.pdf+html (13 June 2014).
- Howard, Smith, Kudela