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- Synthesis of iron fertilization experiments: From the iron age in the age of enlightenment,
- Comparison of eight iron experiments shows that maximum Chl a, the maximum DIC removal, and the overall DIC/Fe efficiency all scale inversely with depth of the wind mixed layer (WML) defining the light environment. Moreover, lateral patch dilution, sea surface irradiance, temperature, and grazing play additional roles. The Southern Ocean experiments were most influenced by very deep WMLs. In contrast, light conditions were most favorable during SEEDS and SERIES as well as during IronEx-2. The two extreme experiments, EisenEx and SEEDS, can be linked via EisenEx bottle incubations with shallower simulated WML depth. Large diatoms always benefit the most from Fe addition, where a remarkably small group of thriving diatom species is dominated by universal response of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Significant response of these moderate (10-30 μm), medium (30-60 μm), and large (>60 μm) diatoms is consistent with growth physiology determined for single species in natural seawater. The minimum level of "dissolved" Fe (filtrate < 0.2 μm) maintained during an experiment determines the dominant diatom size class. However, this is further complicated by continuous transfer of original truly dissolved reduced Fe(II) into the colloidal pool, which may constitute some 75% of the "dissolved" pool. Depth integration of carbon inventory changes partly compensates the adverse effects of a deep WML due to its greater integration depths, decreasing the differences in responses between the eight experiments. About half of depth-integrated overall primary productivity is reflected in a decrease of DIC. The overall C/Fe efficiency of DIC uptake is DIC/Fe ∼ 5600 for all eight experiments. The increase of particulate organic carbon is about a quarter of the primary production, suggesting food web losses for the other three quarters. Replenishment of DIC by air/sea exchange tends to be a minor few percent of primary CO2 fixation but will continue well after observations have stopped. Export of carbon into deeper waters is difficult to assess and is until now firmly proven and quite modest in only two experiments. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union., Cited By (since 1996):271, Oceanography, Art. No.: C09S16, , , Downloaded from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2004JC002601/pdf (16 June 2014).
- de Baar, Boyd, Coale, Landry, Tsuda, Assmy, Bakker, Bozec, Barber, Brzezinski, Buesseler, Boyé, Croot, Gervais, Gorbunov, Harrison, Hiscock, Laan, Lancelot, Law, Levasseur, Marchetti, Millero, Nishioka, Nojiri, van Oijen, Riebesell, Rijkenberg, Saito, Takeda, Timmermans, Veldhuis, Waite, Wong
- Iron and grazing constraints on primary production in the central equatorial Pacific,
- Recent studies in the central equatorial Pacific allow a comprehensive assessment of phytoplankton regulation in a high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) ecosystem. Elemental iron enters the euphotic zone principally via upwelling and is present at concentrations (≤30 pM) well below the estimated half-saturation constant (120 pM) for the large cells that bloom with iron enrichment. In addition, the meridional trend in quantum yield of photosynthesis suggests that even the dominant small phytoplankton are held below their physiological potential by iron deficiency. Grazing by microzooplankton dominates phytoplankton losses, accounting for virtually all of the measured phytoplankton production during El Nino conditions and ~66% during normal upwelling conditions, with mesozooplankton grazing and lateral advection closing the balance. Nitrate uptake is strongly correlated with the pigment biomass of diatoms; which increase in relative abundance during normal upwelling conditions. Nonetheless, the f-ratio remains low (0.07-0.12) under all conditions. Iron budgets are consistent with the notions that new production is determined by the rate of new iron input to the system while total production depends on efficient iron recycling by grazers. Although the limiting substrates differ, the interactions of resource limitation and grazing in HNLC regions are conceptually similar to the generally accepted view for oligotrophic subtropical regions. In both systems, small dominant phytoplankton grow at rapid, but usually less than physiologically maximal, rates; they are cropped to low stable abundances by microzooplankton; and their sustained high rates of growth depend on the remineralized by-products of grazing., , , ,
- Landry, Barber, Bidigare, Chai, Coale, Dam, Lewis, Lindley, McCarthy, Roman, Stoecker, Verity, White