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- Hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from Japanese tsunami marine debris washing ashore in the northwestern United States
- Fourteen species of hydroids, including two anthoathecates and 12 leptothecates, are reported from the west coast of North America on debris from the tsunami that struck Japan on 11 March 2011. Six species were found on a dock that stranded at Agate Beach, Newport, Oregon, five from a boat at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, four from a dock in Olympic National Park, Washington, and two from a boat in Grays Harbor, Washington. Obelia griffini Calkins, 1899, the most frequently encountered species, was collected on three of the four derelict substrates. Eight of the species are known to be amphi-Pacific in distribution. Of the rest, at least five (S tylactaria s p . ; Eutima japonica Uchida, 1925; Orthopyxis platycarpa Bale, 1914; Sertularella sp.; Plumularia sp.) are not previously known from the west coast of North America. Hydroids of E. japonica occurred as commensals in the mantle cavity of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819. Obelia griffini, O. gracilis Calkins, 1899 (not its secondary homonym Laomedea gracilis Dana, 1846) and O. surcularis Calkins, 1899 are taken to be conspecific. Of the three simultaneous synonyms, precedence is assigned to the name O. griffini under the Principle of the First Reviser in zoological nomenclature. The species is sometimes regarded as identical with O. dichotoma (Linnaeus, 1758).
- Calder, Choong, Carlton, Chapman, Miller, Geller
- Porifera (Sponges) from Japanese Tsunami Marine Debris arriving in the Hawaiian Islands and on the Pacific coast of North America
- Twelve species of sponges (Calcarea and Demospongiae) were found on Japanese Tsunami Marine Debris (JTMD) that washed ashore in Oregon, Washington, and Hawai‘i. All taxa but one determined to species level are amphi-Pacific, with three having type localities in California (Leucosolenia eleanor Urban, 1906, Hymeniacidon sinapium de Laubenfels, 1930, and Mycale macginitei de Laubenfels, 1930). Haliclona xena de Weerdt, 1986, known previously only from western Europe (and where it is regarded as introduced from an unknown region) is here newly reported from the Tohoku coast of Honshu, as is Halisarca “dujardini Johnston, 1842”. Five species (Mycale macginitei, Hymeniacidon sinapium, Ute sp., Haliclona xena and Halisarca “dujardini”) were observed only once. Multiple lines of evidence (including lack of colonization by uniquely Eastern Pacific sponge species, the arrival in Hawai‘i of some of the same species whose only possible origin was Japan, and the low probability of coastal sponge larvae colonizing JTMD in the open ocean) indicate that the sponges on JTMD originate from the Western Pacific. Several species of sponges may have completed multiple generations on these long-distance rafts.
- Elvin, Carlton, Geller, Chapman, Miller