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- Using accelerometers to determine the calling behavior of tagged baleen whales
- Low-frequency acoustic signals generated by baleen whales can propgate over vast distances, making the assignment of calls to specific individuals problematic. Here, we report the novel use of acoustic recording tags equipped with high-resolution accelerometers to detect vibrations from the surface of two tagged fin whales that directly match the timing of recorded acoustic signals. A tag deployed on a buoy in the vicinity of calling fin whales and a recording from a tag that had just fallen off a whale were able to detect calls acoustically but did not record corresponding accelerometer signals that were measured on calling individuals. Across the hundreds of calls measured on two tagged fin whales, the accelerometers response was generally anisotropic across all three axes, appeared to depend on tag placement and increased with the level of received sound. These data demonstrate that high-sample rate accelerometry can provide important insights into the acoustic behavior of baleen whales that communicate at low frequencies. This method helps identify vocalizing whales, which in turn enables the quantification of call rates, a fundamental component of models used to estimate baleen whale abundance and distribution from passive acoustic monitoring.
- Goldbogen, Stimpert, DeRuiter, Calambokidis, Friedlaender, Schorr, Moretti, Tyack, Southall
- How many organisms are in ballast water discharge?: A framework for validating and selecting compliance monitoring tools
- As regulations governing the discharge of living organisms in ships' ballast water enter into force, tools to rapidly and easily measure compliance with the discharge standards will be essential. To assess, validate, and select compliance tools, a framework-consisting of three parts-is presented: proof-of-concept, validation and verification, and final selection stages. Next, a case study describing the proof-of-concept stage is discussed. Specifically, variable fluorescence was evaluated as an approach for determining compliance with the discharge standard for living organisms ≥10. μm and <50. μm (typically protists). Preliminary laboratory experiments were conducted, which were followed by an expert workshop to gauge the feasibility of this approach and propose hypothetical thresholds indicating when the discharge standard is undoubtedly exceeded. Subsequently, field trials were conducted to assess this approach and recommended thresholds. All results were favorable, indicating the validation and verification stages are merited to further evaluate fluorometers as compliance monitoring tools. © 2014.
- Drake, Tamburri, First, Smith, Johengen