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- Organochlorines and other environmental contaminants in muscle tissues of sportfish collected from San Francisco Bay,
- Edible fish species were collected from 13 locations throughout San Francisco Bay, during the spring of 1994, for determination of contaminant levels in muscle tissue. Species collected included white croaker, surfperch, leopard and brown smoothhound sharks, striped bass, white sturgeon and halibut. 66 composite tissue samples were analysed for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, trace elements and dioxin/furans. The US EPA approach to assessing chemical contaminant data for fish tissue consumption was used for identifying the primary chemicals of concern. Six chemicals or chemical groups were found to exceed screening values (SVs) established using the US EPA approach. PCBs (as total Aroclors) exceeded the screening level of 3 ng g -1 in all 66 muscle tissue samples, with the greatest concentrations (638 ng g -1) found near San Francisco's industrial areas. Mercury was elevated (> 0.14 μg g -1) in 40 of 66 samples with the greatest concentrations (1.26 μg g -1) occurring in shark muscle tissues. Concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, total chlordane and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exceeded screening levels in a number of samples. Dioxin/furans (as toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ's)) were elevated (> 0.15 pg g -1) in 15 of the 19 samples analysed. Fish with high lipid content (croaker and surfperch) in their muscle tissue generally exhibited higher organic contaminant levels while fish with low lipid levels (halibut and shark) exhibited lower organic contaminant levels. Tissue samples taken from North Bay stations most often exhibited high levels of chemical contamination. The California Office of Health Hazard Assessment is currently evaluating the results of this study and has issued an interim Health Advisory concerning the human consumption of fish tissue from San Francisco Bay., Cited By (since 1996):61, CODEN: MPNBA, ,
- Fairey, Taberski, Lamerdin, Johnson, Clark, Downing, Newman, Petreas
- Shift from coral to macroalgae dominance on a volcanically acidified reef
- Rising anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere is accompanied by an increase in oceanic CO2 and a concomitant decline in seawater pH (ref. 1). This phenomenon, known as ocean acidification (OA), has been experimentally shown to impact the biology and ecology of numerous animals and plants2, most notably those that precipitate calcium carbonate skeletons, such as reef-building corals3. Volcanically acidified water at Maug, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) is equivalent to near-future predictions for what coral reef ecosystems will experience worldwide due to OA. We provide the first chemical and ecological assessment of this unique site and show that acidification-related stress significantly influences the abundance and diversity of coral reef taxa, leading to the often-predicted shift from a coral to an algae-dominated state4,5. This study provides field evidence that acidification can lead to macroalgae dominance on reefs., Early online view available.
- Enochs, Manzello, Donham, Kolodziej, Okano, Johnston, Young, Iguel, Edwards, Fox, Valentino, Johnson, Benavente, Clark, Carlton, Burton, Eynaud, Price