(1 - 2 of 2)
- Sediment-water exchange of total mercury and monomethyl mercury in the San Francisco Bay-Delta,
- Five field trips were conducted in the San Francisco Bay-Delta between May 2000 and October 2001 to investigate the sediment-water exchange of total mercury (Hg) and monomethyl mercury (MMHg). Solid-phase Hg averaged ∼1 nmol g -1 and did not show any variability with depth or time or among sites. In contrast, solid-phase MMHg showed considerable vertical, temporal, and spatial variability (0.4-66 pmol g -1), with the highest values occurring at a peat-rich environment in May 2001, suggesting that MMHg production was largely controlled by temporal factors and habitat type. In pore water, both Hg and MMHg concentrations were generally elevated near the sediment-water interface during warm months. Sediment-water exchange flux of MMHg, determined with benthic chamber deployments, ranged from -92 to 850 pmol m -2 d -1, with higher values occurring in May. In most cases, diffusional fluxes of Hg and MMHg, estimated with the use of interfacial concentration gradients, constituted only a minor portion of the measured fluxes, suggesting the importance of advective processes on sediment-water exchange. Surface-water transect and time series studies conducted in Franks Tract support the commonly held belief that wetland and marsh regions are major sources for MMHg within the Delta. The integrated sediment-water fluxes of Hg and MMHg in the study area were estimated to be 130 and 6 mmol d -1, respectively, and the benthic input was as important a source of Hg and MMHg as the riverine input within the Delta during low-flow months., Cited By (since 1996):63, Rocks and Cores, Oceanography, CODEN: LIOCA, ,
- Choe, Gill, Lehman, Han, Heim, Coale
- Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands: A synthesis of methylmercury production, hydrologic export, and bioaccumulation from an integrated field study
- With seasonal wetting and drying, and high biological productivity, agricultural wetlands (rice paddies) may enhance the conversion of inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) to methylmercury (MeHg), the more toxic, organic form that biomagnifies through food webs. Yet, the net balance of MeHg sources and sinks in seasonal wetland environments is poorly understood because it requires an annual, integrated assessment across biota, sediment, and water components. We examined a suite of wetlands managed for rice crops or wildlife during 2007-2008 in California's Central Valley, in an area affected by Hg contamination from historic mining practices. Hydrologic management of agricultural wetlands for rice, wild rice, or fallowed - drying for field preparation and harvest, and flooding for crop growth and post-harvest rice straw decay - led to pronounced seasonality in sediment and aqueous MeHg concentrations that were up to 95-fold higher than those measured concurrently in adjacent, non-agricultural permanently-flooded and seasonally-flooded wetlands. Flooding promoted microbial MeHg production in surface sediment of all wetlands, but extended water residence time appeared to preferentially enhance MeHg degradation and storage. When incoming MeHg loads were elevated, individual fields often served as a MeHg sink, rather than a source. Slow, horizontal flow of shallow water in the agricultural wetlands led to increased importance of vertical hydrologic fluxes, including evapoconcentration of surface water MeHg and transpiration-driven advection into the root zone, promoting temporary soil storage of MeHg. Although this hydrology limited MeHg export from wetlands, it also increased MeHg exposure to resident fish via greater in situ aqueous MeHg concentrations. Our results suggest that the combined traits of agricultural wetlands - slow-moving shallow water, manipulated flooding and drying, abundant labile plant matter, and management for wildlife - may enhance microbial methylation of Hg(II) and MeHg exposure to local biota, as well as export to downstream habitats during uncontrolled winter-flow events.
- Windham-Myers, Fleck, Ackerman, Marvin-DiPasquale, Stricker, Heim, Bachand, Eagles-Smith, Gill, Stephenson, Alpers