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- Mesoscale iron enrichment experiments 1993-2005,
- Since the mid-1980s, our understanding of nutrient limitation of oceanic primary production has radically changed. Mesoscale iron addition experiments (FeAXs) have unequivocally shown that iron supply limits production in one-third of the world ocean, where surface macronutrient concentrations are perennially high. The findings of these 12 FeAXs also reveal that iron supply exerts controls on the dynamics of plankton blooms, which in turn affect the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, silicon, and sulfur and ultimately influence the Earth climate system. However, extrapolation of the key results of FeAXs to regional and seasonal scales in some cases is limited because of differing modes of iron supply in FeAXs and in the modern and paleo-oceans. New research directions include quantification of the coupling of oceanic iron and carbon biogeochemistry., Cited By (since 1996):367, CODEN: SCIEA, ,
- Boyd, Jickells, Law, Blain, Boyle, Buesseler, Coale, Cullen, De Baar, Follows, Harvey, Lancelot, Levasseur, Owens, Pollard, Rivkin, Sarmiento, Schoemann, Smetacek, Takeda, Tsuda, Turner, Watson
- Synthesis of iron fertilization experiments: From the iron age in the age of enlightenment,
- Comparison of eight iron experiments shows that maximum Chl a, the maximum DIC removal, and the overall DIC/Fe efficiency all scale inversely with depth of the wind mixed layer (WML) defining the light environment. Moreover, lateral patch dilution, sea surface irradiance, temperature, and grazing play additional roles. The Southern Ocean experiments were most influenced by very deep WMLs. In contrast, light conditions were most favorable during SEEDS and SERIES as well as during IronEx-2. The two extreme experiments, EisenEx and SEEDS, can be linked via EisenEx bottle incubations with shallower simulated WML depth. Large diatoms always benefit the most from Fe addition, where a remarkably small group of thriving diatom species is dominated by universal response of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Significant response of these moderate (10-30 μm), medium (30-60 μm), and large (>60 μm) diatoms is consistent with growth physiology determined for single species in natural seawater. The minimum level of "dissolved" Fe (filtrate < 0.2 μm) maintained during an experiment determines the dominant diatom size class. However, this is further complicated by continuous transfer of original truly dissolved reduced Fe(II) into the colloidal pool, which may constitute some 75% of the "dissolved" pool. Depth integration of carbon inventory changes partly compensates the adverse effects of a deep WML due to its greater integration depths, decreasing the differences in responses between the eight experiments. About half of depth-integrated overall primary productivity is reflected in a decrease of DIC. The overall C/Fe efficiency of DIC uptake is DIC/Fe ∼ 5600 for all eight experiments. The increase of particulate organic carbon is about a quarter of the primary production, suggesting food web losses for the other three quarters. Replenishment of DIC by air/sea exchange tends to be a minor few percent of primary CO2 fixation but will continue well after observations have stopped. Export of carbon into deeper waters is difficult to assess and is until now firmly proven and quite modest in only two experiments. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union., Cited By (since 1996):271, Oceanography, Art. No.: C09S16, , , Downloaded from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2004JC002601/pdf (16 June 2014).
- de Baar, Boyd, Coale, Landry, Tsuda, Assmy, Bakker, Bozec, Barber, Brzezinski, Buesseler, Boyé, Croot, Gervais, Gorbunov, Harrison, Hiscock, Laan, Lancelot, Law, Levasseur, Marchetti, Millero, Nishioka, Nojiri, van Oijen, Riebesell, Rijkenberg, Saito, Takeda, Timmermans, Veldhuis, Waite, Wong