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- Recruitment, Growth and Mortality of an Antarctic Hexactinellid Sponge, Anoxycalyx joubini
- Polar ecosystems are sensitive to climate forcing, and we often lack baselines to evaluate changes. Here we report a nearly 50-year study in which a sudden shift in the population dynamics of an ecologically important, structure-forming hexactinellid sponge, Anoxycalyx joubini was observed. This is the largest Antarctic sponge, with individuals growing over two meters tall. In order to investigate life history characteristics of Antarctic marine invertebrates, artificial substrata were deployed at a number of sites in the southern portion of the Ross Sea between 1967 and 1975. Over a 22-year period, no growth or settlement was recorded for A. joubini on these substrata; however, in 2004 and 2010, A. joubini was observed to have settled and grown to large sizes on some but not all artificial substrata. This single settlement and growth event correlates with a region-wide shift in phytoplankton productivity driven by the calving of a massive iceberg. We also report almost complete mortality of large sponges followed over 40 years. Given our warming global climate, similar system-wide changes are expected in the future. © 2013 Dayton et al., Cited By (since 1996):4, Art. No.: e56939, Downloaded from: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0056939 (16 June 2014).
- Dayton, Kim, Jarrell, Oliver, Hammerstrom, Fisher, O'Connor, Barber, Robilliard, Barry, Thurber, Conlan
- High species density patterns in macrofaunal invertebrate communities in the marine benthos,
- Species density of macrofaunal invertebrates living in marine soft sediments was highest at the shelf-slope break (100-150m) in Monterey Bay (449 m-2). There were 337 species m-2 in the mid-shelf mud zone (80 m). There were fewer species along the slope: 205 m-2 from the lower slope (950-2000 m) and 335 m-2 on the upper slope (250-750 m). Species density was highest inside the bay (328-446 m-2) compared to outside (336-339 m-2), when examining samples at selected water depths (60-1000 m). There was little difference in local species density from 1 km of shoreline compared to regional species density along 1000 km of shoreline at both shelf and slope depths. The highest species densities worldwide in the literature are recorded along the Carolina slope in the Atlantic Ocean, where peak species density (436/0.81 m2) at 800 m and values at the largest sample areas are similar to those on the Monterey Bay shelf. We speculate that the highest species densities occur where ocean water exchanges energy with shoaling topography at the continental margin, bringing more food to the benthos -- areas such as the very productive waters in the upwelling system of Monterey Bay., Cited By (since 1996):1, ,
- Oliver, Hammerstrom, McPhee-Shaw, Slattery, Oakden, Kim, Hartwell